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NET in a Xamarin. Mac application, you have the same ability to sandbox an application as you do when working with Objective-C or Swift. In this article, we'll cover the basics of working with sandboxing in a Xamarin. Mac application and all of the elements that go into sandboxing: It is highly suggested that you work through the Hello, Mac article first, specifically the Introduction to Xcode and Interface Builder and Outlets and Actions sections, as it covers key concepts and techniques that we'll be using in this article.
The App Sandbox provides strong defense against damage that can be caused by a malicious application being run on a Mac by limiting the access that an application has to system resources. A non-sandboxed application has the full rights of the user that is running the app and can access or do anything that the user can. If the app contains security holes or any framework that it's using , a hacker can potentially exploit those weaknesses and use the app to take control of the Mac that it is running on.
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By limiting access to resources on a per-application basis, a sandboxed app provides a line of defense against theft, corruption or malicious intent on the part of an application running on the user's machine. The App Sandbox is an access control technology built into macOS enforced at the kernel level that provides a twofold strategy:. After you understand these details, you'll be able to create a plan for adopting the App Sandbox in your Xamarin.
Mac application. First, you will need to determine if your application is a good candidate for sandboxing most applications are.
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Next, you will need to resolve any API incompatibilities and determine which elements of the App Sandbox you will require. Finally, look into using Privilege Separation to maximize you application's defense level. When adopting the App Sandbox, some file system locations that your application uses will be different. Particularly, your application will have a Container Directory that will be used for application support files, databases, caches and any other files that are not user documents. Both macOS and Xcode provide support to migrate these type of files from their legacy locations to the container.
In this section, we'll create a simple Xamarin. Mac app that uses a Web View which requires a network connection that is restricted under sandboxing unless specifically requested as an example of getting started with the App Sandbox. We'll verify that the application is actually sandboxed and learn how to troubleshoot and resolve common App Sandbox errors. Click the Next button, enter MacSandbox for the project name and click the Create button:.
In the Solution Pad , double-click the Main. Drag a Web View onto the Window, size it to fill the content area and set it to grow and shrink with the window:.
Before we can enable the App Sandbox, we first need to provision and sign our Xamarin. In some instances you might need to download the new Provisioning Profile from Apple's Developer Portal directly and double-click it to install. You might also need to stop and restart Visual Studio for Mac before it will be able to access the new profile. Next, we need to load the new App ID and Profile on the development machine. Let's do the following:. Mac project. In the Solution Pad , double-click the Info. Next, double-click the Entitlements. In the Solution Pad , double-click the project file to open its Options for editing:.
Select Mac Signing , then check Sign the application bundle and Sign the installer package. Under Provisioning profile , select the one we created above:. At this point you should try to run the application and make sure that everything is signed and provisioned correctly. If the app still runs as before, everything is good. In the event of a failure, you might get a dialog box like the following one:.
In the case of an issue, correct the problem on the Apple Developer Portal, refresh the profiles in Xcode and do a clean build in Visual Studio for Mac. In the Solution Pad , double-click the Entitlements.
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At this point, you have enabled the App Sandbox but you have not provided the required network access for the Web View. If you run the application now, you should get a blank window:. Aside from the resource blocking behavior, there are three main ways to tell if a Xamarin. Mac application has been successfully sandboxed:. The debugger connects to Xamarin.
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- Sandboxing a Xamarin.Mac app.
- About the App Sandbox.
The Allow Outgoing Network Connections Client permission is the one required for the debugger, enabling this one will allow debugging normally. Release builds should use the entitlements specified in the entitlements file, unmodified. An App Sandbox Violation occurs if a sandboxed Xamarin. Mac application tried to access a resource that has not be explicitly allowed. For example, our Web View no longer being able to display the Apple Website. The most common source of App Sandbox Violations occurs when the Entitlement settings specified in Visual Studio for Mac don't match the requirements of the application.
Again, back to our example, the missing Network Connection entitlements that keep the Web View from working. If you suspect an App Sandbox Violation is occurring in your Xamarin. Mac application, the quickest way to discover the issue is by using the Console app. Select All Messages in the sidebar and enter sandbox in the search:. For our example app above, you can see that the Kernal is blocking the network-outbound traffic because of the App Sandbox, since we have not requested that right.
Now that we have seen how to find App Sandboxing Violations, let's see how they can be solved by adjusting our application's Entitlements. If we do the above for our example app, then build and run it, the web content will now be displayed as expected. The access control mechanisms provided by the App Sandbox are few and easy to understand. However, way that the App Sandbox will be adopted by each app is unique and based on the requirements of the app.
Given your best effort to protect your Xamarin. The App Sandbox was designed to prevent the takeover or limit the damage it can cause by allowing you to specify the application's intended interactions with the system. The system will only grant access to the resource that your application requires to get its job done and nothing more. When designing for the App Sandbox, you are designing for a worst-case scenario. As we saw above, a Xamarin.
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Mac application that has not been sandboxed is granted the full rights and access of the user that is running the app. If compromised by malicious code, a non-protected app can act as an agent for hostile behavior, with a wide ranging potential for doing harm. By enabling the App Sandbox, you remove all but a minimal set of privileges, which you then re-enable on a need-only basis using your Xamarin.
Mac app's entitlements. You modify your application's App Sandbox Resources by editing its Entitlements. When your Xamarin. Mac application adopts the App Sandbox, it has access to the following locations:. Unfortunately, Xamarin. Starting with Mac macOS You can use this shared container for non-user facing content such as database or other types of support files such as caches. A sandboxed Xamarin. Mac application can access file system locations outside of its container in the following ways:. Powerbox is the macOS security technology that interacts with the user to expand your sandboxed Xamarin.
Mac app's file access rights. Powerbox access is enabled via the Entitlements that you set for your Xamarin. When a sandboxed app displays an Open or Save dialog, the window is presented by Powerbox and not AppKit and therefore has access to any file or directory that the user has access to. When a user selects a file or directory from the Open or Save dialog or drags either onto the App's icon , Powerbox adds the associated path to the app's sandbox.
Be default, files opened or saved by a sandboxed Xamarin. Mac app remain accessible until the app terminates unless the file was still open when the app quits. Open files will be automatically restored to the app's sandbox via the macOS Resume feature the next time the app is started. To provide persistence to files located outside of a Xamarin. Mac App's container, use Security-Scoped bookmarks see below. The App Sandbox allows an app to access related items that have the same filename, but different extensions.
The feature has two parts: In both scenarios, the app's Info. Mac app:. As stated above, a Sandboxed Xamarin. Mac application can access a file or resource outside of its container by way of direct user interaction as provided by PowerBox. However, access to these resources does not automatically persist across app launches or system restarts.
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Mac application can preserve user intent and maintain access to given resources after an app restart. An App-Scoped Bookmark provides persistent access to a user-specified file or folder. Test de l'Amazon Echo Input: Test du Microsoft Surface Headphones: Signaler une erreur dans le texte. Partager cet article! Tous mes articles Suivez-moi Suivez-moi: Ramboaniaina Volatiana.
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